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Aurogyro-ELA-07-Casarrubios-Spain

Aurogyro ELA-07

Autogyro
Kellett-kd1

In The Man of Bronze, Doc Savage instructs Ham to take his auto-gyro to Washington, D.C.

An auto-gyro is a type of light rotary-wing, similar to a helicopter. Unlike the helicopter, the auto-gyro’s rotors depend on aerodynamic forces to provide lift, rather than an engine driven rotors, while an engine driven propeller is used to thrust to the aircraft. The engine can either be a pusher or puller type of arrangement, just as with standard fixed-wing aircraft.This is a Kellett_KD-1 operated by Eastern Airlines is perhaps the type used by Doc Savage-leastwise according to Marvel Comics.

 |name= Kellett KD-1  |image=Kellett KD.1 (YG-1B) 37-381 Yanks 05.01.08R.jpg  |caption=Kellett XR-3 modification of YG-1B (KD-1) of U.S. Army preserved at [[Yanks Air Museum]], [[Chino, California|Chino]] airfield California, in January 2008 }}{{Infobox Aircraft Type  |type=Autogyro  |national origin=United States  |manufacturer=[[Kellett Autogiro Company]]  |designer=  |first flight=[[1934 in aviation|1934]]  |introduced=  |retired=  |status=  |primary user=[[United States Army Air Forces]]  |more users=[[Eastern Airlines]]  |produced=  |number built=  |variants with their own articles= }}


The '''Kellett KD-1''' was a 1930s [[United States|American]] [[autogyro]] built by the [[Kellett Autogiro Company]]. It had the distinction of being the first practical rotary-wing aircraft used by the United States Army and inaugurated the first scheduled air-mail service using a rotary-wing aircraft.


==Development==

Using the experience gained in building [[Cierva]] autogyros under licence the Kellett Autogiro Company developed the KD-1 which was similar to the contemporary [[Cierva C.30]]. It had two open cockpits, a fixed tailwheel landing gear and was powered by a 225 hp (168 kW) Jacobs L-4 radial engine. After testing of the prototype a commercial variant designated the '''KD-1A''' was put into production. The KD-1A had a three-bladed rotor with folding blades and a number of minor detail improvements. A KD-1B which was a KD-1A with an enclosed cockpit for the pilot was operated by Eastern Airlines and inaugurated the first scheduled rotary-wing air-mail service on 6 July 1939.


In 1935 the United States Army bought a KD-1 for evaluation and designated it the '''YG-1''', a second aircraft followed which had additional radio equipment and was designated the '''YG-1A'''. These two aircraft were followed by a batch of seven designated '''YG-1B'''. In 1942 seven more were bought for use in the observation role as the '''XO-60'''. Six XO-60s were re-engined with 300 hp (224 kW) [[Jacobs R-915]]-3s and re-designated '''YO-60'''.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=mCYDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA129&dq=Popular+Science+1931+plane&hl=en&ei=b0IkTfqeCoKBnAfU-bWiAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CEcQ6AEwCTgo#v=onepage&q=Popular%20Science%201931%20plane&f=true "ARMY AUTOGIRO"] ''Popular Science'', June 1944, photo of YO-60</ref> One YG-1B was modified with a constant-speed rotor and was re-designated the '''YG-1C''', it was later re-engined with the more powerful R-915 and re-designated again as the '''XR-2'''. The XR-2 was destroyed by rotor ground resonance problems and the evaluation was continued with another modified YG-1B designated the '''XR-3'''.


==Variants==

[[File:Kellett YG-1 at Langley April 1936.jpg|thumb|Right|YG-1 (KD-1) at Langley]]

;KD-1

:Prototype, one built

;KD-1A

Commercial variant with open cockpit and a {{convert|225|hp|kW|abbr=on}} [[Jacobs R-755|Jacobs L-4]] radial engine; three built.

;KD-1B

:Commercial variant with enclosed cockpit; two built.

;YG-1

:United States Army designation for one KD-1A acquired for evaluation.

;YG-1A

:One aircraft as YG-1 with the addition of radio equipment.

[[File:Kellett YG-1B at Langley - NASA image L-16653.jpg|thumb|right|YG-1B at Langley]]

;YG-1B

:Production aircraft for the United States Army; seven built.

;YG-1C

:One YG-1B modified with a constant-speed rotor for evaluation, later designated the XR-2.

[[image:XO-60.jpg|right|thumb|A Kellett XO-60]]

;XO-60

Production aircraft for the United States Army with a {{convert|225|hp|kW|abbr=on}} [[Jacobs R-755]] radial engine, seven built.

;YO-60

Six XO-60s re-engined with a {{convert|300|hp|kW|abbr=on}} Jacob R-915-3 radial engine.

;XR-2

The YG-1C re-designated after being re-engined with a {{convert|300|hp|kW|abbr=on}} [[Jacobs R-915|Jacobs R-915-3]] radial engine.

;XR-3

:One YG-1B modified to XR-2 standard for evaluation.

;Kayaba Ka-Go prototype 

:Prototype; it was an airframe which had repaired KD-1A by Kayaba.  

;[[Kayaba Ka-1]]

Imperial Japanese Army developed referring to KD-1A. Powered by a {{convert|240|hp|kW|abbr=on}} [[Argus As 10]] engine, airframe that changed engine of prototype.

;[[Kayaba Ka-1|Kayaba Ka-2]]

Imperial Japanese Army developed, referring to KD-1A. Powered by a {{convert|245|hp|kW|abbr=on}} [[Jacobs R-755|Jacobs L-4MA-7]] engine, airframe that changed engine of Ka-1 for the same thing as prototype.


==Operators==

{{JPN}}
{{USA}}

* [[Eastern Airlines]]

* [[United States Army Air Forces]]


==Specifications (KD-1B) ==

{{aerospecs

|ref=

|met or eng?=eng


|crew=2

|capacity=

|length m=8.79

|length ft=28

|length in=10

|span m=

|span ft=

|span in=

|swept m=

|swept ft=

|swept in=

|rot number=

|rot dia m=12.19

|rot dia ft=

|rot dia in=

|dia m=

|dia ft=

|dia in=

|width m=

|width ft=

|width in=

|height m=3.12

|height ft=

|height in=

|wing area sqm=

|wing area sqft=

|swept area sqm=

|swept area sqft=

|rot area sqm=

|rot area sqft=

|volume m3=

|volume ft3=

|aspect ratio=

|empty weight kg=

|empty weight lb=

|gross weight kg=1018

|gross weight lb=

|lift kg=

|lift lb=


|eng1 number=1

|eng1 type=Jacobs L-4MA

|eng1 kw=170

|eng1 hp=

|eng1 kn=

|eng1 lbf=

|eng1 kn-ab=

|eng1 lbf-ab=

|eng2 number=

|eng2 type=

|eng2 kw=

|eng2 hp=

|eng2 kn=

|eng2 lbf=

|eng2 kn-ab=

|eng2 lbf-ab=


|max speed kmh=201

|max speed mph=

|max speed mach=

|cruise speed kmh=

|cruise speed mph=

|range km=322

|range miles=

|endurance h=

|endurance min=

|ceiling m=4267

|ceiling ft=

|glide ratio=

|climb rate ms=

|climb rate ftmin=

|sink rate ms=

|sink rate ftmin=


|armament1=

|armament2=

|armament3=

|armament4=

|armament5=

|armament6=

}}


==See also==

{{aircontent


|see also=

|related=

|similar aircraft=

* [[Cierva C.30]]


|lists=

* [[List of helicopters]]

* [[List of military aircraft of the United States]]

}}


==References==

;Notes

{{Reflist}}

;Bibliography

  • {{cite book |last= Taylor |first= Michael J. H. |title=Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation |year=1989 |publisher=Studio Editions |location=London |pages= }}
  • {{cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985)|year= |publisher= Orbis Publishing|location= |issn=|pages=}}
  • {{cite book |last= Andrade |first= John |title= U.S.Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909|year=1979 |publisher=Midland Counties Publications|isbn= 0-904597-22-9}}


==External links==

{{commons category-inline|Kellett KD-1}}


{{Kellett aircraft}}

{{USAAC autogyros}}

{{USAF helicopters}}

{{USAAF observation aircraft}}

{{aviation lists}}


[[Category:United States military utility aircraft 1930–1939]]

[[Category:Autogyros]]

[[Category:Kellett aircraft|KD-1]]

References Edit

Auto-Gyro

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